Basal Ganglia Anatomy and Physiology

1. Describe the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the basal ganglia.

2. Know the neurotransmitters and the main receptor classes involved in the basal ganglia circuitry with thalamus and cerebral cortex.

3. Understand the differential effects of dopamine at D1 versus D2 receptors and the mechanism whereby these differential effects lead to balance between the direct and indirect pathways.

4. Understand the phsyiological/neurochemical imbalances in the direct/indirect pathways that lead to and/or produce the syndromes/symptoms of the following: Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, Hemiballismus.